PART V - RACIAL INJUSTICE

1965


BLOODY SUNDAY
SELMA, ALABAMA: MARCH 7, 1965
United Press International for the Daily News
 
A Negro youth, his eyes closed against tear gas, holds an unconscious Negro woman after club-swinging Alabama state troopers broke up march by Negroes from Selma to Montgomery.


March 9 1965 After tear gas youth holds unconscious woman UPI for Daily News  AL photo March91965AfterteargasyouthholdsunconsciouswomanUPIforDailyNewsAL_zps4dc6b153.jpg

On Sunday March 7, 1965, about six hundred people began a fifty-four mile march from Selma, Alabama to the state capitol in Montgomery. They were demonstrating for African American voting rights and to commemorate the death of Jimmie Lee Jackson, shot three weeks earlier by a state trooper while trying to protect his mother at a civil rights demonstration. 
On the outskirts of Selma, after they crossed the Edmund Pettus Bridge, the marchers, in plain sight of photographers and journalists, were brutally assaulted by heavily armed state troopers and deputies.
 
The Dallas County Voters League, the Southern Christian Leadership Council (SCLC), and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) were all working for voting rights in Alabama. Senator John Lewis headed SNCC's voter registration effort and, on March 7, he and fellow activist Hosea Williams led the group of silent marchers from the Brown Chapel AME Church to the foot of the Pettus bridge and into the event soon known as "Bloody Sunday."
 
ABC television interrupted a Nazi war crimes documentary, Judgement in Nuremberg, to show footage of violence in Selma a powerful metaphor was presented to the nation. Within forty-eight hours, demonstrations in support of the marchers were held in eighty cities and thousands of religious and lay leaders, including Dr. Martin Luther King, flew to Selma. 
 
On March 9, Dr. King led a group again to the Pettus Bridge where they knelt, prayed, and, to the consternation of some, returned to Brown Chapel. That night a Northern minister, James J. Reeb who was in Selma to march, was killed by white vigilantes.
 

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HAULED AWAY
WASHINGTON, DC: MARCH 12, 1965
United Press International Telephoto (WAP031212)


March 12 1965 Civil rights demonstrators threw their bodies across Penn Ave Being Hauled away photo March121965CivilrightsdemonstratorsthrewtheirbodiesacrossPennAveBeingHauledaway_zps3e9fb87e.jpg

Civil rights demonstrators protesting racial violence in Selma, Alabama threw their bodies across Pennsylvania Avenue in front of the White House (background) today to block rush hour traffic. About two dozen, including this one shown here, were hauled away by police after a rough tussle.


 

CARRIED AWAY
WASHINGTON, DC: MARCH 12, 1965
United Press International Telephoto (rw61830ct)


March 12 1965 part 2 Civil rights demonstrators threw their bodies across Penn Ave Being Hauled away photo March121965part2CivilrightsdemonstratorsthrewtheirbodiesacrossPennAveBeingHauledaway_zps897d3ae3.jpg

Police carry away civil rights demonstrator today from Pennsylvania Avenue in front of the White House during rush hour traffic.


 

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PRAY FOR THE SLAIN MINISTER
BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS: MARCH 12, 1965
Associated Press Wirephoto (dcg61300trav)


Pray for Slain Minister March 12 1965 photo PrayforSlainMinisterMarch121965_zps21fc9085.jpg

Mrs. Evelyn King and Mrs. William Pope, both Catholics, pray on sidewalk in front of home of Unitarian minister James J. Reeb who died after a beating by white men in Salem, Alabama. A pet dog of the four Reeb children watches in center.
 
James Reeb (January 1, 1927 – March 11, 1965) was a white American Unitarian Universalist minister from Boston, Massachusetts, and a pastor and civil rights activist in Washington, D.C. 
 
While marching for civil rights in Selma, Alabama, in 1965, he was beaten severely by white segregationists and died of head injuries two days later in the hospital. He was 38 years old.


 

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DOWN THE CAPITAL STEPS
WASHINGTON, DC: MARCH 15, 1965
United Press International Telephoto (Bob Schutz WAP031509)


March 15 1965 Police drag demonstrator down capital steps Washington DC WAP031509 photo March151965PolicedragdemonstratordowncapitalstepsWashingtonDCWAP031509_zps532b7038.jpg

Police drags civil rights demonstrator who continued singing as he was dragged down the steps on the house side of the Capitol in Washington, D.C. Police carried and dragged 11 of the demonstrators who staged a sit-in near the office of the speaker.


 

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A HELPING HAND
CAMDEN, ALABAMA: MARCH 31, 1965
United Press International (SLP033103)
 
A Civil rights demonstrator gives a helping hand to a fellow marcher after police tossed smoke bombs into the group.


Mar 31 1965 Camden Ala Smoke Bombs tossed photo Mar311965CamdenAlaSmokeBombstossed_zps6e35efbe.jpg

The incident occurred when the group was determined to attempted to march to the courthouse this week. Refusing to leave the city when ordered to do so, the group was personally stopped by Mayor Reg Allbritton. The Mayor said he was responsible for the security and welfare of the town of 2,500 – which has only three full time policemen – and did not want to use force.
 
The mayor said he was willing to meet with any of the negroes to discuss their problems. But, said “they shouldn’t just come down here for the hell of it.


 

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THE WATTS RIOTS OR (WATTS REBELLION)
took place in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles from August 11 to 17, 1965. The six-day riot resulted in 34 deaths, 1,032 injuries, 3,438 arrests, and over $40 million in property damage. It was the most severe riot in the city's history until the Los Angeles riots of 1992.
 
Los Angeles did not have the outright de jure segregation (separation by law) like the South, but it did have racial restrictive covenants which prevented blacks and Hispanics from renting and buying in certain areas, even long after the courts ruled them illegal in 1948.
 
For a time in the early 1950s and with its increasing numbers of black population, South Central Los Angeles became the site of significant racial violence, with whites bombing, firing into, and burning crosses on the lawns of homes purchased by black families south of Slauson. White gangs in nearby cities such as South Gate and Huntington Park routinely accosted blacks who traveled through white areas. The black mutual protection clubs that formed in response to these assaults became the basis of the region's fearsome street gangs.
 
The explosive growth of suburbs, most of which barred blacks by a variety of methods, provided the opportunity for whites in neighborhoods bordering black districts to leave en masse. Not only were the city's black and Latino residents excluded from the high-paying jobs, affordable housing, and politics available to whites, they also faced discrimination by the Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD). In 1950, William H. Parker was appointed and sworn in as Los Angeles Chief of Police. Parker pushed for more independence from political pressures. The public supported him and voted for charter changes that isolated the police department from the rest of government. 
 
In the 1960s, despite reform and having a professionalized military-like police force, William Parker's LAPD faced heavy criticism from the city's Latino and black residents for police brutality. Police beat black and Latino residents, assaulted women, and governed by fear and intimidation in a similar manner to the South. Chief Parker, who coined the term Thin Blue line, made it a policy for officers to make sure they engaged as many young black teens and pre-teens as possible. His philosophy was to establish a presence and dominance while they were still young and let them know who was boss. 
 
These racial injustices caused Watts’ African American population to explode on the evening of Wednesday, August 11, 1965, when 21-year-old Marquette Frye, an African American man, was pulled over by white California Highway Patrol motorcycle officer Lee Minikus on suspicion of driving while intoxicated. Minikus convinced Frye was under the influence, radioed for his vehicle to be impounded. Marquette's brother Ronald, a passenger in the vehicle, walked to their house nearby, bringing their mother back with him.
 
Backup police officers arrived and attempted to arrest Frye by using physical force to subdue him. As the situation intensified, growing crowds of local residents watching the exchange began yelling and throwing objects at the police officers. Frye's mother and brother fought with the officers and were eventually arrested along with Marquette. After the Fryes' arrests, the crowd continued to grow. Police came back to the scene to break up the crowd but were attacked by rocks and concrete. Twenty-nine people were arrested.
 
The rioting intensified and on Friday, August 13, about 2,300 National Guardsmen joined the police trying to maintain order on the streets. That number increased to 3,900 by midnight on Saturday, August 14. Sergeant Ben Dunn said "The streets of Watts resembled an all-out war zone in some far-off foreign country, it bore no resemblance to the United States of America." Martial law was declared and curfew was enforced by the National Guardsmen who put a cordon around a vast region of South Central Los Angeles. In addition to the guardsmen, 934 Los Angeles Police officers and 718 officers from the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department were deployed during the rioting.
 
Between 31,000 and 35,000 adults participated in the riots over the course of five days, while about 70,000 people were "sympathetic, but not active." Mainstream white America viewed those actively participating in the riot as criminals destroying and looting their own neighborhood. Many in the black community, however, saw the rioters as taking part in an "uprising against an oppressive system." Black civil rights activist Bayard Rustin in a 1966 essay states, "the whole point of the outbreak in Watts was that it marked the first major rebellion of Negroes against their own masochism and was carried on with the express purpose of asserting that they would no longer quietly submit to the deprivation of slum life."


NEGRO INJURED IN BATTLE WITH POLICE
LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA: AUGUST 13, 1965
Associated Press Wirephoto (rhs61330cor)


Aug 13 1965 Watts Roit Negro injured in battle w police AP wirephoto rhs61330cor photo Aug131965WattsRoitNegroinjuredinbattlewpoliceAPwirephotorhs61330cor_zps2aacf7b4.jpg

Blood streams from a wound in a Negro’s head he turns from police with whom he had fought during rioting last night in the Watts area in southeast Los Angeles. Police today asked the state to call out the National Guard to help restore order.


MOMENTS BEFORE DEATH
LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA: AUGUST 13, 1965
Associated Press Wirephoto (rhs71105KNXT-cor)
 
A Negro was shot in the head by a National Guardsman in Los Angeles early today lies on the street as another Guardsman breaks out a first aid kit to give him medical assistance.


Moments Before Death August 13 1965 photo MomentsBeforeDeathAugust131965_zpsfc29d6db.jpg

The Negro was a passenger in an automobile which Guardsmen fired upon when it was driven through a roadblock. He was taken to a hospital which reported back later the man was dead on arrival.
The driver of the car was also killed.


SUSPECTED OF LOOTING
LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA: AUGUST 15, 1965
United Press International Telephoto (HCP081511)


Suspected of Looting August 15 1965 photo SuspectedofLootingAugust151965_zps0ad80661.jpg

Police check two Negroes suspected of looting a market early 8/15 as looting & burning continues in Southeast Los Angeles for the fifth day. Except for some scattered gunfire, rioting in this area is now under control in the Negro uprising which caused at least 27 deaths.

 


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DOWN GOES THE DEMONSTRATOR
CRAWFORDVILLE, GEORGIA: OCTOBER2, 1965
Assoicated Press Wirephoto (HC71520stf-hwc)


Down Goes A Demonstrator Oct 2 1965 photo DownGoesADemonstraorOct21965_zps9c205770.jpg

A Negro youth demonstraot involved in a sitdown at a private dining club is flipped to the ground by a white man (right) after dragging the negro from in front of the entrance of the club at Crawfordville, Georgia today. The sign in background says "A Dixie Welcome To Crawfordville."


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FLYING TACKLE
CRAWFORDVILLE, GEORGIA: OCTOBER 8, 1965
Associated Press Wirephoto (HC60905stf-DM)


Oct 6 1965 Crawfordville GA Flying Takle AP wirephoto HC60905stf DM photo Oct61965CrawfordvilleGAFlyingTakleAPwirephotoHC60905stfDM_zps535ad166.jpg

A Georgia State Trooper bowls over Negro girl (right) and puts a flying tackle on Negro youth as they make a dash through police lines in another attempt to board school buses with white pupils in Crawfordville, Georgia today.


1966


CLARA EVERHARDT
ATLANTA, GEORGIA: FEBRUARY 10, 1966
United Press International Telephoto (150529)
 
Mrs. Clara Everhardt, bundled against sub-freezing cold, uses an ax to chop down and old wooden fence to use as firewood in her ancient home, “I’m Gonna stay warm one way or the other,” said the Negro woman, a resident of “Lightning,” a slum area near downtown Atlanta, Georgia.


Feb 10 1966 Mrs Clara Everhardt Fighting off sub 0 cold by chopping down fence for firewood downtown atl photo Feb101966MrsClaraEverhardtFightingoffsub0coldbychoppingdownfenceforfirewooddowntownatl_zps8b5b187f.jpg

“Lightning” was a neighborhood just west of Downtown Atlanta, Georgia, north of the former extension of Magnolia Street, south of Simpson St. (now Joseph E. Boone Blvd.) and east of Northside Drive. It was razed to make way mostly for the expansion of the Georgia World Congress Center as well as the north end of the Georgia Dome.


 

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CHICAGO POVERTY STORY
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS: FEBRUARY 20, 1966
Chicago Sun Times (story by Larry Nocerino)
 
Mrs. Leola Burnett holding her baby, speaks to Mrs. Mary Lou McCullough on the run-down conditions in her apartment at 1615 W. 14th Place.


Chicago Poverty Story Feb 20 1966 photo ChicagoPovertyStoryFeb201966_zps3398c0f6.jpg

At work in the front lines of Chicago’s war on poverty are more than 400 workers, canvassing their own neighborhoods to determine what is needed, by whom. Mrs. Mary Lou McCullough, one of the community representatives working out of the Halsted Urban Process Center, interviews a resident of a dilapidated building on W. 14th Street.


 

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NEGRO KILLED IN NEW WATTS RIOT
LOS ANGELES, CALIFORNIA: MARCH 15, 1966
Associated Press Wirephoto (rhs32025cor)


March 15 1966 Los Angeles Cali Negro Killed In Watts Riot photo March151966LosAngelesCaliNegroKilledInWattsRiot_zps6d3d3830.jpg

The body of a Negro identified by his companions as Joe Crawford, 26, lies on a sidewalk in Watts where he died of a bullet wound through the head during a riot which broke out in the south Los Angeles area today.
 
Witnesses said Crawford was an innocent bystander who was caught in an exchange of gunfire between police and the rioters.


 

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GEORGIA FLAG HELD ALOFT
CORDELE, GEORGIA: MARCH 31, 1966
Associated Press Wirephoto (lg51700stf-LG)


Georgia Flag Held Aloft March 31 1966 photo GeorgiaFlagHeldAloftMarch311966_zps517dc4b2.jpg

A Negro demonstrator holds the Georgia state flag after it was torn from a flagpole in front of the Crisp County Courthouse by civil rights demonstrators in Cordele today.


 

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WAVING FLAGS
TOUGALOO, MISSISSIPPI: JUNE 26, 1966
United Press International Telephoto (JKP062601)


June 26 1966 - Freedom Marchers wave flags - Tougaloo MS photo June261966-FreedomMarcherswaveflags-TougalooMS_zps80a0791d.jpg

Freedom marchers waving flags and wearing hats of red, white, & blue, set out on the final leg of their trek to the state capital at Jackson.


 

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SEARCHING FOR GUNS
CHICAGO, ILLINOIS: AUGUST 23, 1966
Chicago Daily News (Photo by Charles Krejcsi)


Aug 23 1966 Civil Rights demonstrators arrested at Mayer Daleys Home SSA 28021 Daily News Chicago IL photo Aug231966CivilRightsdemonstratorsarrestedatMayerDaleysHomeSSA28021DailyNewsChicagoIL_zpsc25067f5.jpg

Civil rights demonstrators who picketed the home of Mayor Richard J. Daley Monday night are searched for guns outside the Deering St. Police Station. 
 
The search was prompted by anonymous telephone callers telling police the marchers would be armed. Frank ditto (right foreground), executive director of the Oakland Committee for Community Improvement, who led the march, said his group was demonstrating against an injunction issued Friday limiting marchers within Chicago to one a day with no more than 500 participants.
 
Captain Howard Pierson told Ditto he was violating the injunction but permitted the demonstration.


 

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SUMMERHILL RACE RIOT
ATLANTA, GEORGIA: SEPTEMBER 7, 1966
Associated Press Wirephoto (AAR 1819)
 
Facing the Crowd.
 
Atlanta Mayor Ivan Allen Jr. climbed atop a police vehicle with a bullhorn as an attempt to disperse the crowd, of Negroes which had gathered to protest the police shooting of a Negro man.


Summerhill Race Riot Sept 7 1966 photo SummerhillRaceRiotSept71966_zps844fb321.jpg

Jeered as a "white devil," Allen was forced from atop of the car by a hail of rocks and bottles, but escaped injury. The riot heightened racial tension in the state.
 
The Summerhill race riot lasted four days and was sparked by police brutality. A suspected car thief was shot by a policeman. 
 
After the shooting the SNCC and its leader Stokely Carmichael were accused of starting the riot (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.) One person died and twenty more were injured.
 
Summerhill is a neighborhood directly south of Downtown Atlanta between the Atlanta Zoo and Turner Field. It is bordered by the neighborhoods of Grant Park, Mechanicsville, and Peoplestown. 
One of two settlements established after the Civil War by William Jennings in 1865, Summerhill’s early inhabitants were freed slaves and Jewish immigrants.


 

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A CLASH AT HARLEM SCHOOL
HARLEM, NEW YORK: SEPTEMBER 21, 1966
Associated Press Wirephoto (lg51700stf-LG)


Clash at Harlem School Sept 21 1966 photo ClashatHarlemSchoolSept211966_zps4fdef83b.jpg

Man is hauled away by police from area outside Intermediate School 201 in New York’s Harlem today. A woman tries to help the man who was one of four persons taken into custody following a disturbance touched off when a reinstated white school principal, Stanley R. Lisser, arrived at the new showcase school. Pickets had appeared outside the school in protest to Lisser’s reinstatement.


1967


SCUFFLE DURING RIGHTS MARCH
MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN: SEPTEMBER 4, 1967
Associated Press Wirephoto (reo21840strgr)
 
Members of the Youth Council of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People struggle with a white youth during a brief scuffle Sunday.


Sept 4 1967 Fair Housing protest Milwaukee Wisconsin M17  APWirephoto reo21840strgr photo Sept41967FairHousingprotestMilwaukeeWisconsinM17APWirephotoreo21840strgr_zps21b6dcf6.jpg

The marchers, seeking fair housing legislation, were walking through a white neighborhood at the time. A white man and a white youth were taken into custody by the police.

 

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DEMONSTRATOR HUSTLED OFF
PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA: NOVEMBER 17, 1967
Associated Press Wirephoto (wfa 6 1330 str)


Demonstrator Hustled Away - Nov 17 1967 photo DemonstratorHustledAway-Nov171967_zps6366d933.jpg

Two Negro police officers take a demonstrator in tow at the disturbance at Philadelphia's Board of Education building in center city today as Negro students and others were protesting what they termed "the white policy toward education" in Philadelphia.


 



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